Reading 101 attempts to lay out the descrete elements of reading needed to be a successful reader. Here the elements of reading are described and links are provided to explicit examples, goals for IEP writing and activities and worksheets to help drill and review these important building block skills with disabled readers.
Disabled readers have deficits in one of the building blocks of reading. In order to understand how to intervene, you need to understand those building blocks.
In order to begin reading, a student needs to understand the relationship between letters and letter sounds in language. This is a fairly complex concept, and some children may never truly acquire this skill. Some component parts:
- Letter Recognition
- Letter Sound Correspondence
First, the child needs to be able to recognize and replicate the actual word sound, or phoneme. This article helps you understand how to teach phonemic awareness.
Children need to be able to recognize and name the letters of the alphabet. Children who are truly dyslexic sometimes have difficulty confusing the direction of similar letters, such as p, b, d and q or similar letters, such as n and r. Many typically developing children show the ability to differentiate letters quickly. some struggle telling letters apart.
The next step is to string words together into sentences. It is important to recognize that words put together lead to meaning. Another thing that should replace decoding is word recognition.
We emphasize reading with expression for an important reason: reading with expression reflects reading with understanding, and often reflect understanding that appreciates nuance. Listen to a very competent young reader, and you will be impressed with how they are able to infer meaning.
Readers with low rates are often not reading with good word recognition, are often bogged down with decoding individual words. They cover less material than their peers who read with more fluency, and they are often slowed down by the mechanics of word recognition.