When you are writing an FBA (Functional Behavior Analysis) you will need to collect data. There are three kinds of information you will be choosing: Indirect Observational Data, Direct Observational Data, and if possible, Experimental Observational Data. A true Functional Analysis will include an Analogue Condition Functional Analysis. Dr. Chris Borgmeier of Portland State University has made a number of helpful forms available online to use for this data collection.
Indirect Observational Data:
The first thing to do is to interview parents, classroom teachers and others who have had ongoing responsibility for supervising the child in question. Be sure that you give each stakeholder the functional description of the behavior, to be sure it is the behavior you are seeing. The Las Cruces New Mexico Schools have excellent resources on their website, including questionnaires for each group of observer.Teachers may find this form helpful to evaluate the behavior of a student.
Direct Observation Data
You will need to determine what kinds of data do you need. Does the behavior appear frequently, or is it the intensity that is frightening? Does it seem to occur without warning? Can the behavior be redirected, or does it intensify when you intervene?
If the behavior is frequent, you will want to use a frequency or scatter plot tool. A frequency tool can be a partial interval tool, that records how frequently a behavior appears during a finite period. The results will be X occurrences per hour. A scatter plot can help identify patterns in the occurrence of behaviors. By pairing certain activities with the occurrence of behaviors, you can identify both antecedents and possibly the consequence that is reinforcing the behavior.
If the behavior lasts a long time, you may want a duration measure. The scatter plot may give you information about when it happens, a duration measure will let you know how long a behavior tends to last.
Analogue Condition Functional Analysis
You need to set up the observation in a separate room. Set up a play situation with neutral or preferred toys. You then proceed to insert one variable at time: a request to do work, removal of a favored item or you leave the child alone. If the behavior appears when you are present in a neutral setting, it may be automatically reinforcing. Some children will hit themselves in the head because they are bored, or because they have an ear infection. If the behavior appears when you leave, it is most likely for attention. If the behavior appears when you ask the child to do an academic task, it is for avoidance. You will want to record your results, not only on paper, but perhaps also on a video tape.