**The Common Core State Standards,** written for the Council of Chief State School Executives, have been adopted by 47 states. Many states are rolling out curriculum and assessments to align with these standards. Here are IEP goals aligned to the standards for young or severely disabled students.

### Kindergarten Operations and Algebraic Understanding (KOA)

This is the lowest level of mathematical function, but still serves as a foundational basis for understanding operations. According to the Core Common State standards, students should be able to:

"Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from."

**KOA1:** Students will represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g. claps,) acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

This standard is an effective strategy for teaching students with disabilities to model addition and subtraction, but difficult to write goals for. I will start with 2.

**KOA2:** Students will solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

- (Addition) When presented with ten random sets of counters within ten, JOHNNY STUDENT, will solve problems modeled by the teacher with statements such as: "Here are three counters. Here are four counters. How many counters altogether?" correctly answering 8 out of 10, three out of four consecutive trials.
- (Subtraction) When presented with ten random sets of counters within ten, JOHNNY STUDENT will solve problems modeled by the teacher using statement, such as, "Here are ten counters. I will take these away. How many are left?" correctly answering 8 out of 10 (80%), three out of four consecutive trials.

**KOA3:** Students will decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

- When presented with ten random sets of counters within ten, JOHNNY STUDENT will divide the counters into two sets, placing each on a template with two squares, and writing a math statement for each set, (i.e. 4 + 4 = 8) correctly 8 of 10 probes (80%) , three of four consecutive trials.

**KOA4:** For any number from 1 to 9, the student will find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

- When presented with a random number on a card from 1 to 9, JOHNNY STUDENT will find the correct number of counters to add to the number to make ten, 8 out of 9 probes, (89%) for three of four consecutive trials.

**KOA5:** Students will fluently add and subtract within 5.

- When randomly given 10 mixed flash cards with addition problems using numbers 0 through 5, and subtraction problems using numbers 0 through 5, JOHNNY STUDENT will correctly answer 9 of 10 in quick succession, three of four consecutive trials.

### First Grade Operations and Algebraic Thinking (1OA)

Common Core Standards for first grade Operations and Algebraic Thinking from 1 through 4 are excellent for instruction, but Standards 5 and 6 will provide evidence of having mastered operations to 20.

**1OA.5:** Students will relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

This standard aligns well with two common methods for teaching addition and subtraction for students with learning disabilities: Touch Math and number lines. There are goals for each of these methods. For each of these goals, I would recommend the Math Worksheet Sit. You are able to control the range of problems that will be randomly generated at this free site. For Touch Math you can add the touch points after you have generated random addition or subtraction pages. I have also used the addition or subtraction pages that come with the student's book for data collection.

- When given ten (10) addition problems with Touch Points,with addends to 9, JOHNNY STUDENT will write the correct answer, 8 out of 10 problems (80%) for three of four consecutive trials.
- When given ten (10) subtraction problems with Touch Points, with minuends to 18 and subtrahends to 9, JOHNNY STUDENT will write the correct answer, 8 out of 10 problems (80%) for three of four consecutive trials.
- When given a numberline to 20 and ten (10) addition problems with addends to 9, JOHNNY STUDENT will write the correct answer, 8 out of 10 problems (80%) for three of four consecutive trials.

- When given a numberline to 20 and ten (10) addition problems with addends to 9, JOHNNY STUDENT will write the correct answer, 8 out of 10 problems (80%) for three of four consecutive trials.

**1OA.6 ** Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

This standard may make a good partner to teaching place value, by helping students find and see the "ten" in numbers between 11 and 20. I offer only one goal, as this is far more effective as an instructional strategy than a measurable goal.

- When given a random number of counters between 11 and 19 ten times (probes), JOHNNY STUDENT will regroup the number into a ten and ones, placing them on a work mat with two squares, one labeled "ten", the other "ones" correctly 8 out of 10 probes (80%) in three of four consecutive trials.